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The role of DNA methylation in epigenetics of aging

Abstract Recent research suggests that epigenetics, especially DNA methylation, plays a mechanistic role in aging. Epigenetic clocks, which measure changes in a few hundred specific CpG sites, can accurately predict chronological age in a variety of species,including humans. These clocks are currently the best biomarkers for predictingmortalityin humans. Additionally, several studies have characterized the effects

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Impact of microbiota on central nervous system and neurological diseases: the gut- brain axis

Abstract Development of central nervous system (CNS) is regulated by both intrinsic and peripheral signals. Previous studies have suggested that environmental factors affect neurological activities under both physiological and pathological conditions. Although there is anatomical separation, emerging evidence has indicated the existence of bidirectional interaction between gut microbiota, i.e., (diverse microorganisms colonizing human intestine), and

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Mitohormesis and metabolic health: The interplay between ROS, cAMP and sirtuins

A B S T R A C T The key role of mitochondria in oxidative metabolism and redox homeostasis explains the link between mitochondrial dysfunction and the development of metabolic disorders. Mitochondria’s highly dynamic nature, based on alterations in biogenesis, mitophagy, fusion and fission, allows adjusting sequential redox reactions of the electron transport chain (ETC)

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The Need for Multi-Omics Biomarker Signatures in Precision Medicine

Abstract: Recent advances in omics technologies have led to unprecedented efforts characterizing the molecular changes that underlie the development and progression of a wide array of complex human diseases, including cancer. As a result, multi-omics analyses—which take advantage of these technologies in genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and other omics areas—have been proposed and heralded

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Gut Microbiota and Dysbiosis in Alzheimer’s Disease: Implications for Pathogenesis and Treatment

Abstract Understanding how gut flora influences gut-brain communications has been the subject of significant research over the past decade. The broadening of the term “microbiota-gut-brain axis” from “gut-brain axis” underscores a bidirectional communication system between the gut and the brain. The microbiota-gut-brain axis involves metabolic, endocrine, neural, and immune pathways which are crucial for the

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The mitohormetic response as part of the cytoprotection mechanism of berberine

Abstract It was well-known that Berberine, a major bioactive compound extracted from natural plants Coptis chinensis, has anti-diabetic effects for decades in china. Other types of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hypolipidemic, and anti-cancer effects, have also been examined. At cellular level, these pharmacological activities were mostly an inhibitory effect. However, the cytoprotective effect

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The progress of gut microbiome research related to brain disorders

Abstract There is increasing evidence showing that the dynamic changes in the gut microbiota can alter brain physiology and behavior. Cognition was originally thought to be regulated only by the central nervous system. However, it is now becoming clear that many non-nervous system factors, including the gut-resident bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract, regulate and influence

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Regulation of Nrf2 by Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species in Physiology and Pathology

Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are byproducts of aerobic respiration and signaling molecules that control various cellular functions. Nrf2 governs the gene expression of endogenous antioxidant synthesis and ROS-eliminating enzymes in response to various electrophilic compounds that inactivate the negative regulator Keap1. Accumulating evidence has shown that mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) activate Nrf2, often mediated by

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Precision medicine in diabetes prevention, classification and management

ABSTRACT Diabetes has become a major burden of healthcare expenditure. Diabetes management following a uniform treatment algorithm is often associated with progressive treatment failure and development of diabetic complications. Recent advances in our understanding of the genomic architecture of diabetes and its complications have provided the frame- work for development of precision medicine to personalize

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