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A multi-omics view of the complex mechanism of vascular calcification (2021)

Vascular calcification is a high incidence and high risk disease with increasing morbidity and high mortality,
which is considered the consequence of smooth muscle cell transdifferentiation initiating the mechanism of accumulation of hydroxyl calcium phosphate. Vascular calcification is also thought to be strongly associated with
poor outcomes in diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Numerous studies have been accomplished; however, the specific mechanism of the disease remains unclear. Development of the genome project enhanced the understanding of life science and has entered the post-genomic era resulting in a variety of omics techniques used in studies and a large amount of available data; thus, a new perspective on data analysis has been revealed. Omics has a broader perspective and is thus advantageous over a single pathway analysis in the study of complex vascular calcification mechanisms. This paper reviews in detail various omics studies including genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics and multiple group studies on vascular calcification. Advances and deficiencies in the use of omics to study vascular calcification are presented in a comprehensive view. We also review the methodology of the omics studies and omics data analysis and processing. In addition, the methodology and data processing presented here can be applied to other areas. An omics landscape perspective across the boundaries between genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics is used to examine the mechanisms of vascular calcification. The perspective combined with various technologies also provides a direction for the subsequent exploration of clinical significance.

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