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Human Milk From Atopic Mothers Has Lower Levels of Short Chain Fatty Acids

Short chain fatty acids (SFCAs) are microbial metabolites produced in the gut upon fermentation of dietary fiber. These metabolites interact with the host immune system and can elicit epigenetic effects. There is evidence to suggest that SCFAs may play a role in the developmental programming of immune disorders and obesity, though evidence in humans remains

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The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) Consensus Statement on the Definition and Scope of Prebiotics

In December 2016, a panel of experts in microbiology, nutrition and clinical research was convened by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics to review the definition and scope of prebiotics. Consistent with the original embodiment of prebiotics, but aware of the latest scientific and clinical developments, the panel updated the definition of a

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Serum Zonulin and Endotoxin Levels in Exceptional Longevity versus Precocious Myocardial Infarction

Endotoxemia-induced inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance and atherosclerosis, ultimately increasing the risk of coronary heart disease. Increased intestinal permeability is an important event leading to endotoxemia. This study aims to elucidate the possible association between endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) and zonulin (a biomarker of intestinal permeability) levels and the risk of coronary heart disease, and

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Role of the Synthetic B1 Vitamin Sulbutiamine on Health

Sulbutiamine is a thiamine derivative developed in Japan in the mid-60’s as a beriberi treatment drug. Since then, different potential applications have been described. For instance, there is some evidence that sulbutiamine can have anti-fatigue, nootropic, and antioxidant effects, which led to its use as a sport supplement (although some authors argue it is actually

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The Role Of Adult Organ-Specific Stem Cells and Cell-Cell Communication in the Epigenetic Modulation of All Human Diseases: The Powerful Influence Of Evolutionary Changes on Human Nutrition & Diets

James E. Trosko, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, Dept. Pediatrics & Human Development, Cllege of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA, E-mail: [email protected]   Understanding human health and acute & chronic diseases depends on understanding the nature of homeostatis in multi-cellular organism and how three mechanisms of toxicity can cause disruption of cell

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Global Bioethical Prevention of the Collision of Biological and Cultural Evolution on Miserable Human Survival

With the cultural myth that science can only determine the way the world “is” (facts), while humanities, social sciences, lawyers, philosophers, and theologians must determine the way the world “ought to be” (values), those in position of global‐, national‐, and local‐political power make major decisions of the use (or non‐use) of scientific knowledge and technology.

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Global Health Crisis Caused by the Collision of Biological and Cultural Evolution: Pre-Natal Influences on Acute and Chronic Diseases in Later Life

In the context of finite global resources for sustained healthy human survival, population explosion, increased environmental pollution, decreased clean air, water, food distribution, diminishing opportunities for human self-esteem, increased median life span, and interconnected causes of acute infectious and chronic diseases, the need to understand the factors leading to human diseases will be necessary for

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The role of DNA methylation in epigenetics of aging

Abstract Recent research suggests that epigenetics, especially DNA methylation, plays a mechanistic role in aging. Epigenetic clocks, which measure changes in a few hundred specific CpG sites, can accurately predict chronological age in a variety of species,including humans. These clocks are currently the best biomarkers for predictingmortalityin humans. Additionally, several studies have characterized the effects

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Impact of microbiota on central nervous system and neurological diseases: the gut- brain axis

Abstract Development of central nervous system (CNS) is regulated by both intrinsic and peripheral signals. Previous studies have suggested that environmental factors affect neurological activities under both physiological and pathological conditions. Although there is anatomical separation, emerging evidence has indicated the existence of bidirectional interaction between gut microbiota, i.e., (diverse microorganisms colonizing human intestine), and

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Mitohormesis and metabolic health: The interplay between ROS, cAMP and sirtuins

A B S T R A C T The key role of mitochondria in oxidative metabolism and redox homeostasis explains the link between mitochondrial dysfunction and the development of metabolic disorders. Mitochondria’s highly dynamic nature, based on alterations in biogenesis, mitophagy, fusion and fission, allows adjusting sequential redox reactions of the electron transport chain (ETC)

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